Tuesday, June 30, 2020

Plug the answer back into the sentence

Im convinced that one of the top reasons people lose points unnecessarily on Fixing Sentences is that they neglect to actually plug their chosen answer back into the sentence and consider it in context. While in some cases an answer may be clearly better worded or more grammatically correct than all the others, in many other cases multiple answers may appear perfectly correct on their own. In such cases especially ones in which you are dealing with a large amount of underlined information you should take the extra time and double-check that your answer actually works in terms of syntax, clarity, and punctuation. It is crucial that you pay attention to the punctuation aspect, particularly to the existing (non-underlined) commas within a sentence. This is because the comma splice (two full sentences joined only by a comma) is among the two or three most common types of wrong answer choices, and it shows up constantly. Constantly. If youre facing a full sentence on one side a comma, you cant have a full sentence on the other side. It doesnt matter how good it sounds or how much sense it makes in context its always going to be wrong. For example: During the Renaissance, glass products made on the island of Murano could only be crafted according to traditional techniques, whereby they forbade artisans to leave and set up shop elsewhere. (A) whereby they forbade artisans to leave (B) as a result artisans were forbidden (C) artisans were thus forbidden (D) it being forbidden for artisans to leave (E) and so artisans were forbidden (A) and (D) are pretty clearly wrong, but (B), (C), and (E) all seem relatively plausible, right? Heres the problem, though: the non-underlined portion of the sentence contains full sentence + comma, meaning that another full sentence cannot follow the comma without creating a comma splice. If we plug these options into the sentence in turn, we get: (B) During the Renaissance, glass products made on the island of Murano could only be crafted according to traditional techniques, as a result artisans were forbidden to leave and set up shop elsewhere. Thats two sentences separated by a comma, so thats out. (C) During the Renaissance, glass products made on the island of Murano could only be crafted according to traditional techniques, artisans were thus forbidden to leave and set up shop elsewhere. Thats also two sentences separated by a comma, so its out too. It is very important to note that the second clause really is a full, grammatical stand-alone statement, even though it may not make logical sense outside of any context. (E) During the Renaissance, glass products made on the island of Murano could only be crafted according to traditional techniques, and so artisans were forbidden to leave and set up shop elsewhere. This answer correctly uses a FANBOYS conjunction to join the two sentences, thus eliminating the comma-splice problem.

Thursday, May 21, 2020

Use Of Factual Primary Sources For Bullying And What I...

For many years bullying has seemed to become a norm for people from all backgrounds and lifestyles within society. The unique thing about bullying is that at times it may occur amongst people that are closest to the victims. Such as, family members, friends, co-workers, or from other known and sometimes unknown assailants. There is no definitive way to pinpoint what makes bullying occur or how it will affect an individual. Because everyone has different tolerance levels and may find alternate ways to cope with bullying whether negative or positive. The purpose of this expository paper is to use factual primary sources to identify how real life bullying experiences can affect a persons life, this is based on real life experiences. I will clarify how these sources are relevant to bullying and what I learned from it. In addition I will explain what valuable information I learned from my primary sources that I didn t from my secondary sources. There many people who have given there accou nt on bullying experiences. Some of their accounts are pretty disturbing and will make you wonder what makes an individual or group of people harass and bullying someone else. Is there really anything someone can say to justify these actions? no there isn t. What can be said is that bullying has become a social problem that public-figures now are resorting to using their social status and influence to bring attention to this controversial topic. Many of these public-figures tell talesShow MoreRelatedLife Of Pi Questions6295 Words   |  26 Pagessixteenth-century Kabbalist and the admirable three-toed sloth. In subsequent chapters, he explains the ways in which religions and zoos are both steeped in illusion. 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Tuckman’s model has been used extensively within youth work theory and practice and is an excellent model for attempting to analyse individual and group behaviour. A brief synopsis of each stage is outlined below, with examples from personal practice. Stage 1: Forming The first stage of this group process is joining, referred to as engagement by Rogers. This phase involves significant testing, and trial and error. Initial concerns about openness and support within the groupRead MoreTeaching Assistant Level 2 Supportive the Pupil Essay11565 Words   |  47 PagesUNIT 1 SUPPORTING THE PUPIL TASK 6. The social and emotional development of children from 5 to sixteen plays a crucial part in in the impact and quality of the child’s lives these influence the development of the child in various ways which is why it is important for a Teaching Assistant to recognise these factors so they can help the child continue learning and use the skills already instilled in them. By treating each child as their own person you learn that they are all different and developRead MoreStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words   |  1573 Pages10.5/12 ITC New Baskerville Std Credits and acknowledgments borrowed from other sources and reproduced, with permission, in this textbook appear on the appropriate page within text. Copyright  © 2013, 2011, 2009, 2007, 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. Manufactured in the United States of America. This publication is protected by Copyright, and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrievalRead MoreMarriage Guidance: Summary Notes19959 Words   |  80 Pagesdeep, unselfish, caring, deep respect Hauck’s basic principles about love †¢ It is not just the person you love, but rather what he/she does for you - actions speak louder than verbal promises of love and devotion. †¢ Just like any business relationship, you have to invest in the relationship so as to benefit from its rewards - love requires a reciprocal investment from both parties †¢ Love is like a business partnership – it needs management - rules to ensure it remains mutually satisfying Read MoreFundamentals of Hrm263904 Words   |  1056 Pagessave money From multiple study paths, to self-assessment, to a wealth of interactive visual and audio resources, WileyPLUS gives you everything you need to personalize the teaching and learning experience.  » F i n d o u t h ow t o M A K E I T YO U R S  » www.wileyplus.com ALL THE HELP, RESOURCES, AND PERSONAL SUPPORT YOU AND YOUR STUDENTS NEED! 2-Minute Tutorials and all of the resources you your students need to get started www.wileyplus.com/firstday Student support from an experiencedRead MoreAn Introduction to Intercultural Communication29172 Words   |  117 PagesAn Introduction to Intercultural Communication Intercultural communication is of importance to international businesses as it examines how people from different cultures, beliefs and religions come together to work and communicate with each other. Demands for intercultural communication skills are increasing as more and more businesses go global or international. They realize that there are barriers and limitations when entering a foreign territory. Without the help of intercultural communicationRead MoreOrganisational Theory230255 Words   |  922 PagesPerspectives John McAuley, Joanne Duberley and Phil Johnson . This book is, to my knowledge, the most comprehensive and reliable guide to organisational theory currently available. What is needed is a text that will give a good idea of the breadth and complexity of this important subject, and this is precisely what McAuley, Duberley and Johnson have provided. They have done some sterling service in bringing together the very diverse strands of work that today qualify as constituting the subject

Tuesday, May 19, 2020

Whole Exome Network Analysis Identifies CXCR5-CXCL13 Signaling as a Key Driver in Breast Cancer - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 8 Words: 2498 Downloads: 2 Date added: 2019/02/06 Category Medicine Essay Level High school Tags: Breast Cancer Essay Did you like this example? I am delighted to submit the concept paper with the title â€Å"Whole Exome Network Analysis Identifies CXCR5-CXCL13 Signaling as a Key Driver in Breast Cancer† for consideration under the NIH Research Fellowship Program, Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Award Individual Predoctoral Fellowship. The primary aim of the Kirschstein-NRSA Individual Predoctoral Fellowship is to provide financial support for mentored research training, leading to a doctoral degree in the biomedical, behavioral, or clinical sciences. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Whole Exome Network Analysis Identifies CXCR5-CXCL13 Signaling as a Key Driver in Breast Cancer" essay for you Create order However, this fellowship program also strives to enhance the diversity of the scientific workforce in the United States by providing opportunities for academic institutions to identify and recruit students from diverse population groups. This fellowship program encourages diverse population groups to seek graduate degrees in health-related research. The long-term goal of the Kirschstein-NRSA Individual Predoctoral Fellowship program is to enhance the number of scientists from diverse population groups and prepare them for research careers in the biomedical, behavioral, and clinical sciences. I am a fourth-year graduate student at Morehouse School of Medicine (MSM), a historically Black College or University in the Atlanta University Center. The mission of MSM is to increase the health and well-being of individuals and communities with emphasis on people of color. This mission is primarily focused on underserved urban and rural populations in Georgia. MSM also seeks to increase the diversity of the health professional and scientific workforce. This mission shares a similar objective to that described in the mission of the Ruth L. Kirschstein NRSA Individual Predoctoral fellowship. I am obtaining a Ph.D. in Biomedical Science and a Master’s degree in Clinical Research (MSCR). The PhD/MSCR program has provided me with a strong foundation in research design, methods, and analytic techniques. My ability to conceptualize and think through research problems has also been enhanced through my participation in this dual degree program. I have gained experience conducting re search as well as presented my research findings as first author. The PhD/MSCR program has afforded me the opportunity to interact with members of the scientific community at scientific meetings and workshops. Moreover, the dual degree program has provided me with a versatile skill which I can utilize in the next stage of my research career. Overall, I believe the Ruth L. Kirschstein NRSA Individual Predoctoral fellowship will provide me with financial support that will take my graduate career to the next level. My dissertation committee consists of 3 experts in Oncology (James Lillard Jr. PhD, MBA, Shailesh Singh, PhD, and Sanjay Jain, MD), 1 expert in Toxicology (Danita Eatman), and 1 Biostatistician (Fengxia Yan, MD). Bioinformatics support will be provided by the bioinformatics core at Morehouse School of Medicine, The Georgia Institute of Technology, and Emory University. PURPOSE Breast cancer (BrCa) is the second leading cause of cancer related deaths in American women (American Cancer Society, 2018). Approximately, 1 in 8 (12%) women in the United States will develop invasive BrCa during her lifetime (American Cancer Society, 2018). In 2018, approximately 250,000 new cases of invasive BrCa will be diagnosed in women and of these women, approximately 40,500 will die from the disease, about 1 in 36 (3%) (American Cancer Society, 2018). More recently, incidence rates have been stable in Caucasian women, but have increased in African American women. This BrCa health disparity is most notably observed in Triple Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC). TNBC is characterized by a lack of molecular markers; estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and the human epidermal growth receptor 2 (HER-2). It accounts for 10-20% of all BrCas and is an aggressive disease with poor prognosis (Pierobon, 2013). TNBC incidence rates are higher in Caucasian women. However, the number of fatalities associated with TNBC is significantly higher in African American women, than compared to other ethnic groups. If no major changes in prevention or treatment occur, the number of lives lost to TNBC will continue to rise. More recently, rapid increases in early stage, BrCa incidence have been reported in pre-menopausal women less than 45 years of age. Additionally, many of these young, early stage breast cancer patients are of ethnic descent. The mechanisms responsible for early stage BrCa in young women of ethnic descent remains unknown. Furthermore, it remains controversial whether early breast cancer has unique tumor biology, which may be highly influenced by race. Despite new developments in early detection and treatments, approximately 5% of women diagnosed with BrCa in the United States will develop metastatic disease at the time of first presentation (EBCTCG, 2005). Additionally, another 30% of women with early-stage, non-metastatic BrCa at diagnosis, will develop distant metastatic disease that is not curable (EBCTCG, 2005). Additional predictive markers and new drug targets are needed to prolong survival and improve the quality of life for BrCa patients. It is essential to understand the mole cules and mechanisms responsible for the aggressive phenotype of breast cancer to develop new, more effective drug targets for the disease. Currently, there are no specific targeted therapies for TNBC due to the lack of ER, PR, and HER-2 markers. Current chemotherapy consists of a combination of drugs including paclitaxel (TAX), doxorubicin (DOX), and cyclophosphamide (CTX)]. TAX is a taxane, which disrupts microtubule function, inhibiting the process of cell division (Singh, 2014). It is more commonly prescribed than docetaxel, another member of the taxane family, due to its tolerable toxicity and is noted as first line therapy in metastatic disease (Erba, 2010). DOX is an anthracyclin, which inhibits DNA and RNA synthesis by intercalating between base pairs of a DNA/RNA strand (El Haibi, 2011). In an effort to combat the acute toxicity associated with DOX, it is often prescribed in combination with TAX (Eralp, 2004). CTX is an alkylating agent, which adds alkyl groups to DNA, which in turn interferes with DNA replication by forming DNA crosslinks (Singh, 2014). It is conditionally prescribed in combination with TAX and DOX, based on disease progression. The ability of CTX to induce the death of certain T regulatory cells contributes to its efficacy. However, this combination therapy produces undesirable side effects. A response rate for a treatment regimen of TAX + DOX + CTX in TNBC patients is a mere 12% for a single agent and can widely vary, 27-65%, for use of multiple agents (Singh, 2014). Patients eventually relapse as a result of chemoresistance and metastasis, ultimately succumbing to this disease. This brings attention to the cells potentially responsible for drug resistance in the tumor microenvironment. The tumor microenvironment is composed of tumor cells as well as various types of stromal cells, such as fibroblasts and endothelial cells. Several types of inflammatory cells including neutrophils, macrophages, and lymphocytes are recruited to breast tumors and play either a positive or negative role in cancer progression. The infiltration of inflammatory cells is regulated by a variety of biologically active molecules in the tumor microenvironment. Chemokines play a significant role in this process (Singh, 2011). Chemokines are 8-10 kilo Dalton (kD) chemotactic cytokines involved in cell trafficking events and normal homeostasis. They are grouped into 4 major subfamilies (C, CC, CXC, and CX3C) based on the pattern of the two NH2-terminal cysteine residues. The extended N-terminus functions to recognize, bind, and activate the receptor. BrCa cells express Chemokine Receptor 5 (CXCR5). Chemokine Ligand 13 (CXCL13) is the sole ligand for CXCR5, which plays a role in cancer progression (Singh, 2009; Singh, 2009; Singh 2011). Our laboratory was the first to show that CXR5-CXCL13 signaling mediates prostate cancer metastasis and progression i.e., growth, migration, and invasion, and survival (El Haibi, 2010-2012). We also demonstrated that CXCR5-CXCL13 signaling induces cancer progression signaling pathways: PI3K, AKT, ERK, and Jun (El Haibi, 2010-2011). However, the mechanisms, by which, CXCL13-CXCR5 signaling promotes breast cancer is unknown. Panse et al revealed CXCR5 and CXCL13 are overexpressed in BrCa tissue (Panse, 2008). This study also showed elevated serum levels of CXCL13 in BrCa patients with metastatic disease, then compared to controls and disease-free patients. Additionally, a recent study provided evidence that co-expression of CXCR5 and CXCL13 showed a significant correlation with lymph node metastasis and independently, CXCL13 had EMT-inducing potential (El Haibi, 2010). Taken together, these findings suggest the CXCR5-CXCL13 signaling axis contr ibutes to the aggressive phenotype of breast cancer (BrCa). The central research questions of this project focus on determining the mechanisms and molecules responsible for differences in tumor biology of young BrCa patients and how these mechanisms and molecules contribute to poor BrCa prognosis. The purpose of this study is to characterize the molecular phenotype of (BrCa) in the context of Chemokine Receptor 5 (CXCR5), Chemokine Ligand 13 (CXCL13), and associated gene expression. This study is novel as uses a bioinformatic approach and gene enrichment analyses to identify the specific molecules and mechanisms responsible for the aggressive phenotype of BrCa, especially in young and early stage BrCa patients. These two unique populations account for a high proportion of BrCa cases and are also associated with unfavorable prognosis. The results from this study have the potential to benefit young and early stage BrCa patients as it will serve as a new predictive factor and therapeutic target for young and early stage BrCa patients. PROJECT DESCRIPTION Breast cancer (BrCa) is the most frequently diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death among women worldwide (American Cancer Society, 2018). Several targeted and adjuvant therapies exist for estrogen receptor (ER) and human epidermal receptor-2 (HER-2) positive breast cancers. Currently there are no targeted therapies for Triple Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC), which lacks the three main receptors used to characterize breast cancer subtypes; estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal receptor-2 (HER-2). Despite new developments in early detection and treatments, approximately 5% of women diagnosed with BrCa in the US will develop metastatic disease at the time of first presentation (EBCTCG, 2005). Additionally, another 30% of women with early-stage, non-metastatic BrCa at diagnosis will develop distant metastatic disease that is not curable (EBCTCG, 2005). Additional predictive markers and new drug targets are needed to prolong s urvival and improve the quality of life for BrCa patients. Panse et al revealed levels of CXCR5 and CXCL13 are elevated in serum and overexpressed by tumor tissue in metastatic BrCa patients. The long-term goal of this study is to further characterize the molecular phenotype of BrCa in the context of CXCR5, CXCL13, and associated gene expression. We hypothesize the CXCR5-CXCL13 signaling axis contributes to the aggressive phenotype of BrCa. A bioinformatic approach will be used to aid in characterizing this new drug target for BrCa. Our patient cohort (1,049 female patients of Caucasian, African American, Latin American, and Asian/Pacific Island descent, age 35-82, diagnosed with ductal and lobular carcinoma ) will be obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). All patients within the cohort have verification of informed consent and IRB approval. Differential Expression Sequencing (DESeq) analysis will be performed to identify genes differentially expressed among primary tumor and matched normal, solid tissue groups. Weighted Gene Network Co-expression (WGCNA) analysis will be performed to identify modules of co-expressed which will be correlated to factors influencing BrCa prognosis, such as age at diagnosis, TNM staging, race, menopausal status, breast cancer subtype, and survival time. Finally, canonical pathway, upstream regulator, and gene interaction analysis will be performed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Our findings suggest CXCR5, CXCL13, and associated genes driving tertiary lymphoid structure formation, is present in BrCa, may serve as a predictive factor, and a new therapeutic target. GOALS AND OBJECTIVES The long-term goal of this study is to further characterize the molecular phenotype of BrCa in the context of CXCR5, CXCL13, and associated gene expression. We hypothesize the CXCR5-CXCL13 signaling axis contributes to the aggressive phenotype of BrCa. The objective of this study is to identify the molecules that contribute to the aggressive phenotype of BrCa in silico. METHODOLOGY Data Collection and Normalization The data used in this study will be obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Clinical and RNA-seq data, for a total of 1049 female patients of Caucasian, African American, Latin American, and Asian/Pacific Island descent, age 35-82, diagnosed with ductal and lobular breast cancer carcinomas will be obtained. All patients within the cohort have verification of informed consent and IRB approval. Detecting Low counts, Batch Effect Correction, and Removal of Outliers A minor limitation of RNA-Seq analysis is the presence of missing expression counts, which alters the distribution of the population. Due to this limitation, normalized counts for all 1,049 patients with 26,000 protein coding genes will be log2 transformed (expression value+1) to create a standard normal distribution. Genes possessing greater than 50% zero counts will be removed to prevent a skewed distribution and remaining genes will be filtered by a standard deviation of 1. We predict that between 5,000-8,000 protein coding genes will be analyzed for batch (center) effect. Using ComBat algorithm, batch effect correction will be applied to detect variance from a total of 52 sequencing centers that contributed to the TCGA BRCA dataset. ComBat, an Empirical Bayes method in the Bioconductor SVA package, will be used to remove all outliers. Detection of Differentially Expressed Genes among Primary Tumor and Matched Normal Samples using DESeq Differential Expression Sequencing (DESeq) is a free software package in R that detects genes that are differentially expressed between two groups. In this study, we will detect genes that are differentially expressed between 113 primary tumor and 113 matched normal samples. Normalized counts for approximately 26,000 genes will be used to determine differential expression. Identification of modules associated with different stages of breast cancer primary tumors using WGCNA Between 5,000 and 8,000 genes will be entered into Weighted Gene Co-Expression Analysis (WGCNA) software. WGCNA is a free software package in R that extracts information on single genes from large scale gene expression profiles, across all patient samples, and uses this information to construct gene network modules of co-expressed genes. These co-expressed genes will be built on a manual threshold power of 6. Modules containing co-expressed genes have the potential to be associated with specific clinical traits. Association is based on a scale of 0-1 with an alpha of 0.05. Network calculation will allow for the identification of a module(s) of genes highly co-expressed with Chemokine Receptor 5 (CXCR5) and Chemokine Ligand 13 (CXCL13) and strongly correlated with clinical traits, such as age at diagnosis, TNM staging, race, menopausal status, breast cancer subtype, and survival time. Functional Enrichment analysis of genes within each module using IPA Following WGCNA, a network module(s) will be identified for functional enrichment containing genes co-expressed with CXCR5 and CXCL13. Ingenuity Pathway analysis (IPA) will be used to elucidate the biological roles of genes inside modules of co-expressed genes. Often modules contain co-expressed genes that contain co-regulated genes, with similar biological functions. These modules of co-expressed genes regulate epigenetic features downstream of particular transcription factors. Genes with high connectivity will be pooled together and IPA will be used to perform an analysis that shows the canonical pathway of selected module hubs. Upstream Regulator Analysis using IPA The Upstream Regulator analysis feature in IPA will be used to identify the biological function of significantly associated gene co-expression module(s) to BrCa stage. Co-expressed genes in this module will most likely be regulated by the same or similar upstream regulators, including transcription factors. We will identify the upstream transcriptional regulators in each module with a p-value of overlap

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Car Repair For The Do-It Yourselfer Essay - 967 Words

Car Repair For The Do-It Yourselfer For most people driving a vehicle is a normal and every day process. On any given day driving in city or town traffic one can experience a number of noises by either their own of somebody else’s vehicle. Car repair can be very expensive, and lately, do-it-yourself projects are very popular. In today’s Internet world, the driver has an option to explore the World Wide Web for information on symptoms, problems, and, depending on the service, the repair procedure. This paper will concentrate on two web sites. The fundamental difference between the two is how much one advertises, and how the other sets the viewer in the right direction. The better of the web sites, in my opinion, is the one†¦show more content†¦A big complaint of many do-it-yourselfers is that the author or mechanic replicating the procedure has the nicest tools, and shop to work out of. This is not true of the articles I saw. The authors of the articles I researched made it a point to use readily made available equipment. An example of this is, using the vehicles jack that it came with instead of a floor jack. There are many links to other articles I found just as informative. The one that sticks to mind is from the magazine â€Å"Popular Mechanics†, titled the â€Å"The Saturday Mechanic†. The biggest advantage to this site is that there is also a link specifically used so viewers of the site can link informative sites too 10W40, and another use d for people to post stories and experiences with their cars. Most of the information here is from hundreds of sources on the Web. Also useful is the search engine on the top left corner. I think of this site as a directory to automotive information. The second web site is http://autorepair.about.com/. This web site seemed very commercial. The curator of the site was Vincent Ciulla. He is most likely a former mechanic, now an author of fix-it manuals. 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A Midsummer Nights Dream by William Shakespeare - 854 Words

A Midsummer Night’s Dream â€Å"Lord, what fools these mortals be (Shakespeare, 1546)!† In the beginning of this play, Hermia refuses her fathers demands to marry Demetrius because she loves Lysander. Her disobedience enrages her father so he presents Theseus with his dilemma, which does not work as well as he had hoped (Gianakaris). Hermia is presented with two alternative options, but neither suits her well. She runs off into the woods with Lysander to get married and from this, a chain of events arises. To make matters even more complicated, Puck is sent out to get the juice of a flower that, when poured in eyelids while asleep, makes people fall in love with the first creature they see. Situations arise from this love juice, and the plot thickens. 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Phonics Lesson Plan Free Essays

Title of Your Lesson| Digraph Picture Hunt| Grade Level| 4th| Subject| Phonics- Digraphs| Summary and Rationale (Connections to Big Goal/Unit)| Students will be working with digraphs. TTW will students what sounds /ph/, /th/, and /sh/ make as a reminder and then asked to give examples. The students will then be given poster board split into three categories for each of the three digraphs and will be working in groups of three to find words and pictures in magazines that fit into the three categories. We will write a custom essay sample on Phonics Lesson Plan or any similar topic only for you Order Now At the end of the activity, the students will present their findings as a summary and a test to make sure the activity was completed correctly. The goal of this activity will be for students to be able to recognize digraphs through pictures as words. Students will demonstrate understanding by responding to questions on whiteboards that they will hold up when questions are asked. | Classroom Scenario (small group, whole class, self-contained, resource, gen. ed. , spec. ed. nclusion)| This activity will be done with the entire class of fifteen, but students will be broken up into five groups of three. | PRETEACHING TASKS/PLANNING| | Common Core State Standards (CCSS)| 4. RF. 3Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words. a. Use combined knowledge of all letter-sound correspondences, syllabication patterns, and morphology (e. g. , roots and affixes) to read accurately unfamiliar multisyllabic words in context and out of context. Objectives (One to two at most. TSW or TSWBAT†¦)(What will your students be able to do? What will students know by the end of this lesson? )| Students will be able to recognize /ph/, /th/, and /sh/ sounds through pictures and words in magazines allowing for easier recognition in real-life| Evaluation/Assessment (Is your assessment intimately aligned to your lesson’s objectives and standards? How will you know whether your students have made progress toward the objective? How and when will you assess mastery? Describe the task, the criteria/rubric, worksheet, check sheet, and goal for mastery. )| Students will be working together to find pictures and words in magazines that correspond to the digraphs we are concentrating on. When the students present their boards, the teacher will know whether or not they have understood what the sounds sound like and if they were able to identify them through pictures and words found in magazines. | Materials Needed (Graphic organizers, specific books, readers, word wall, sound counters, SMARTBoard, etc. )| Whiteboard, magazines, scissors, poster paper, glue| Accommodations/Modifications to be provided/Explicit Differentiated Instructional Strategies| * One-on-one time with teacher will be available for students struggling with the sounds * For differentiated instruction, TTW provide pictures of words and the student will sort them into categories based on their digraph * Another differentiated instruction activity will allow students to write lists of w ords in columns that are appropriate for certain digraphs and sound letter relationships. INSTRUCTIONAL PLAN PRELESSSON SUMMARY (WRITTEN REFLECTION)| SEE ATTACHED RESPONSE BELOW. | TEACHING PROCEDURES| | Building Background (Opener/Hook/Anticipatory Set) (How does this lesson connect to previous lessons/objectives taught? What visuals, video, or text reminders will you use? How you will excite students about the learning that will take place? How will you engage students in the language of the lesson’s objective(s)? Explain. )| When they break of into groups students will be excited that they get to work with their friends to go on an â€Å"in-class scavenger hunt†. TTW let the students know that they will be going on a scavenger hunt to find the sounds that have been written on the whiteboard. The word â€Å"digraph† will be introduced and gone over for students who do not remember it. To help the students remember the function of the digraph, the teacher will ask them to give me a few examples of words with the /ph/, /th/, and /sh/ sounds in them before beginning the activity. | Introduction of New Material (What 3 – 5 key points do you want to emphasize? How/what will you model for students? How will you ensure that students actively take in information presented? )| – Emphasize the specific digraphs previously mentioned – Show students that pairs of letters come together to make sounds in forming words – Allow students the opportunity to choose one word they found a picture for and spell it on the board for the other students to see the digraph pattern and picture they found| Guided Practice/Small Group Lesson Activities (This is where you practice your objective with students. How will you ensure that all students have multiple opportunities to practice? How will you scaffold practice exercise from easy to difficult? How will you monitor and correct student performance? )| The teacher will be walking around from group to group to check for group and individual understanding. TTW will look at the words they have found so far and make sure they are appropriate for the activity. If words are not matching the digraphs being used, TTW will explain why and help them find words that will work. Each group will be presenting so no student will be left out of the process. This exercise itself is self-contained so students will be doing as much as they can with out the help of a teacher. | Independent Practice (This is where you specifically evidence your objective’s goal (s) with the same activity but different items/prompts for individual assessment. How will the students apply the new knowledge they have learned? )| Each student will have pictures that TTW will provide to sort into piles based on their digraph. TTW will walk around and check the piles. To be able to check for entire class understanding, students will respond to activity related questions on whiteboards. | Lesson Closure (How will students summarize what they learned? How will students be asked to state or show the significance of what they have learned? How will you provide all students with opportunities to demonstrate mastery, or progress toward mastery of the objective? How will you specifically review your lesson’s objectives? * TTW will review the digraphs we have focused onTo summarize what we have learned, TTW will say a word and ask for a thumbs up or a thumbs down based on the word the teacher provided and whether it has a digraph sound or not| Extensions (How might you provide opportunities for extension? )| The teacher could make a class bulletin board with a bubble surrounding the three digraphs that we are focusing on. Students can find pictures at home that have those sounds and cut them out and bring t hem in to add to our class bulletin board. Bloom’s Taxonomy Levels Achieved in the Lesson. Please justify. (Found in your Instructional Plans Folders 1 2)| Remember, Recognizing, Recalling- Students will be working from long-term memory to retrieve knowledge from past lessons to complete this activity Understanding- Students will know which category to put their words and pictures into on their poster board by sorting their words and pictures by digraph Applying- The students will be taking knowledge they learned in one format and applying it to a new and different activity| How to cite Phonics Lesson Plan, Essay examples

Phonics Lesson Plan Free Essays

Title of Your Lesson| Digraph Picture Hunt| Grade Level| 4th| Subject| Phonics- Digraphs| Summary and Rationale (Connections to Big Goal/Unit)| Students will be working with digraphs. TTW will students what sounds /ph/, /th/, and /sh/ make as a reminder and then asked to give examples. The students will then be given poster board split into three categories for each of the three digraphs and will be working in groups of three to find words and pictures in magazines that fit into the three categories. We will write a custom essay sample on Phonics Lesson Plan or any similar topic only for you Order Now At the end of the activity, the students will present their findings as a summary and a test to make sure the activity was completed correctly. The goal of this activity will be for students to be able to recognize digraphs through pictures as words. Students will demonstrate understanding by responding to questions on whiteboards that they will hold up when questions are asked. | Classroom Scenario (small group, whole class, self-contained, resource, gen. ed. , spec. ed. nclusion)| This activity will be done with the entire class of fifteen, but students will be broken up into five groups of three. | PRETEACHING TASKS/PLANNING| | Common Core State Standards (CCSS)| 4. RF. 3Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words. a. Use combined knowledge of all letter-sound correspondences, syllabication patterns, and morphology (e. g. , roots and affixes) to read accurately unfamiliar multisyllabic words in context and out of context. Objectives (One to two at most. TSW or TSWBAT†¦)(What will your students be able to do? What will students know by the end of this lesson? )| Students will be able to recognize /ph/, /th/, and /sh/ sounds through pictures and words in magazines allowing for easier recognition in real-life| Evaluation/Assessment (Is your assessment intimately aligned to your lesson’s objectives and standards? How will you know whether your students have made progress toward the objective? How and when will you assess mastery? Describe the task, the criteria/rubric, worksheet, check sheet, and goal for mastery. )| Students will be working together to find pictures and words in magazines that correspond to the digraphs we are concentrating on. When the students present their boards, the teacher will know whether or not they have understood what the sounds sound like and if they were able to identify them through pictures and words found in magazines. | Materials Needed (Graphic organizers, specific books, readers, word wall, sound counters, SMARTBoard, etc. )| Whiteboard, magazines, scissors, poster paper, glue| Accommodations/Modifications to be provided/Explicit Differentiated Instructional Strategies| * One-on-one time with teacher will be available for students struggling with the sounds * For differentiated instruction, TTW provide pictures of words and the student will sort them into categories based on their digraph * Another differentiated instruction activity will allow students to write lists of w ords in columns that are appropriate for certain digraphs and sound letter relationships. INSTRUCTIONAL PLAN PRELESSSON SUMMARY (WRITTEN REFLECTION)| SEE ATTACHED RESPONSE BELOW. | TEACHING PROCEDURES| | Building Background (Opener/Hook/Anticipatory Set) (How does this lesson connect to previous lessons/objectives taught? What visuals, video, or text reminders will you use? How you will excite students about the learning that will take place? How will you engage students in the language of the lesson’s objective(s)? Explain. )| When they break of into groups students will be excited that they get to work with their friends to go on an â€Å"in-class scavenger hunt†. TTW let the students know that they will be going on a scavenger hunt to find the sounds that have been written on the whiteboard. The word â€Å"digraph† will be introduced and gone over for students who do not remember it. To help the students remember the function of the digraph, the teacher will ask them to give me a few examples of words with the /ph/, /th/, and /sh/ sounds in them before beginning the activity. | Introduction of New Material (What 3 – 5 key points do you want to emphasize? How/what will you model for students? How will you ensure that students actively take in information presented? )| – Emphasize the specific digraphs previously mentioned – Show students that pairs of letters come together to make sounds in forming words – Allow students the opportunity to choose one word they found a picture for and spell it on the board for the other students to see the digraph pattern and picture they found| Guided Practice/Small Group Lesson Activities (This is where you practice your objective with students. How will you ensure that all students have multiple opportunities to practice? How will you scaffold practice exercise from easy to difficult? How will you monitor and correct student performance? )| The teacher will be walking around from group to group to check for group and individual understanding. TTW will look at the words they have found so far and make sure they are appropriate for the activity. If words are not matching the digraphs being used, TTW will explain why and help them find words that will work. Each group will be presenting so no student will be left out of the process. This exercise itself is self-contained so students will be doing as much as they can with out the help of a teacher. | Independent Practice (This is where you specifically evidence your objective’s goal (s) with the same activity but different items/prompts for individual assessment. How will the students apply the new knowledge they have learned? )| Each student will have pictures that TTW will provide to sort into piles based on their digraph. TTW will walk around and check the piles. To be able to check for entire class understanding, students will respond to activity related questions on whiteboards. | Lesson Closure (How will students summarize what they learned? How will students be asked to state or show the significance of what they have learned? How will you provide all students with opportunities to demonstrate mastery, or progress toward mastery of the objective? How will you specifically review your lesson’s objectives? * TTW will review the digraphs we have focused onTo summarize what we have learned, TTW will say a word and ask for a thumbs up or a thumbs down based on the word the teacher provided and whether it has a digraph sound or not| Extensions (How might you provide opportunities for extension? )| The teacher could make a class bulletin board with a bubble surrounding the three digraphs that we are focusing on. Students can find pictures at home that have those sounds and cut them out and bring t hem in to add to our class bulletin board. Bloom’s Taxonomy Levels Achieved in the Lesson. Please justify. (Found in your Instructional Plans Folders 1 2)| Remember, Recognizing, Recalling- Students will be working from long-term memory to retrieve knowledge from past lessons to complete this activity Understanding- Students will know which category to put their words and pictures into on their poster board by sorting their words and pictures by digraph Applying- The students will be taking knowledge they learned in one format and applying it to a new and different activity| How to cite Phonics Lesson Plan, Essay examples